About Endometriosis

About Endometriosis

What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis refers to when tissues similar to that of Endometrial cells grow aberrantly and outside of the uterus. These lesions are estrogen-dependent, benign, inflammatory, stem-cell-driven, and at times progressive.

Endometriosis is a whole-body disease. It is a chronic condition associated with severe and life-impacting pain during periods, sexual intercourse, bowel movements, and/or urination, chronic pelvic pain, abdominal bloating, nausea, fatigue, as well as depression, anxiety, and infertility. Aside from these effects, the condition has a far-reaching influence on multiple organ systems of the body. Many complications such as cardiovascular disease and ovarian, breast, cervical, and endometrial cancer, alongside autoimmune disorders, and more are related to endometriosis.

Endometriosis affects 1 in 10 people assigned female at birth. That is more than 200 million people worldwide. For a condition that’s so widespread, it shockingly takes an average of seven and a half years for patients to receive a diagnosis.

Signs and Symptoms

Endometriosis can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Those who have experienced symptoms have reported effects such as:

  • Dysmenorrhea
    These are painful periods characterized by dull pain in the hypogastrium, iliac fossae, sides, or lower back. It is frequently associated with menorrhagia or heavy periods.
  • Dyspareunia
    Pain during sexual intercourse is deep dyspareunia. These are ballistic dyspareunia triggered by deep penetration, generally in the posterior group.
  • Digestive Symptoms
    Digestive symptoms associated with menstruation are varied and non-specific. Pain during defecation or distension of the rectum is sometimes increased during menstruation suggesting endometriosis. The rectum or sigmoid colon in particular together represents 2/3rd of digestive disorders.
  • Urinary Symptoms
    Catamenial Cystalgia, daytime and nocturnal frequent urination, and the impression of regularly having urinary infection during menstruation are grounds for looking for deep endometriosis of the bladder.
    The nodules of deep endometriosis can infiltrate or even envelop the ureters resulting in episodes of back pain, but most often these lesions are asymptomatic for a long time. They may lead to stenosis of the ureter or even to ureteral and pyelocaliceal dilation upstream, complicated in extreme cases by low-level renal atrophy and complete destruction of the kidney.


  • Intermenstrual Pain
    Often associated with advanced endometriosis, intra-abdominal adhesions and neuropathic mechanisms, these can lead to chronic pain that is resistant to usual analgesic drugs. These pains occur in between periods.
  • Other Catamenial Symptoms
    Cyclic pain and is concomitant with menstruation may suggest endometriosis. These are scapular or thoracic pain, pain in the buttocks, perineum or sciatica, catamenial dysuria and episodes of catamenial pneumothorax.

Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility and is found in 1/3rd of people assigned female at birth seeking treatment for infertility for more than a year.